***The following notes are taken directly from –Mutualism, Chapter 15 of  Ecology:  Concepts and Applications, 5th edition, by Manuel C. Molles Jr.***


*Positive interactions between species are found throughout the biosphere.

*Mutualism is interactions between individuals of different species that benefit both partners.

*Faculative mutualism refers to a mutualistic relationship that the species involved in can live without.

*Obligate mutualism refers to a mutualistic relationship that the species involved in cannot live without.*Plants benefit from mutualistic partnerships with a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, and animals.*Plants are the center of mutualistic relationships that provide benefits ranging from nitrogen fixation and nutrient absorbtion to pollination and seed dispersal.*Reef-building corals depend upon mutualistic relationships with algae and animals, with an exchange of benefits paralleling those between terrestrial mutualists.
*Humans have developed a variety of mutualistic relationships with other species; one of the most spectacular is that between the greater honeyguide bird and the traditional honey gatherers of Africa– as shown in the following video: exceed the costs.

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