***The following notes are taken directly from –Competition Chapter 13 of  Ecology:  Concepts and Applications, 5th edition, by Manuel C. Molles Jr.***


*Observation and experimentation can reveal competition between species in nature.

*Interference competition involves direct aggressive interaction between individuals.

*Intraspecific competition is competition among members of same species.

*Interspecific competition is competition between individuals of two species that reduces the finess of both.

*Resource competition is competition involving the use of limited resources.

*Competitive exclusion principle states that two species with identical niches cannot coexist indefinitely. –The species that is most effective at obtaining limited resources and converting them into offspring will, ultimately, solely occupy the niche.

*An Ecological niche is defined as those environmental factors that influence the growth, survival , and reproduction of a species (and are therefore necessary for its survival).

*Allopolyploidy is a process of speciation initiated by hybridization of two different species.

*Competition can have significant ecological and evolutionary influences on the niches of species.

*Character displacement is the changes in the physical characteristics of a species’ population as a result of natural selection for reduced interspecific competition.

*After many decades of theoretical and experimental work on competition, we can conclude that competition is a common and strong force operating in nature, but no always, and not everywhere.


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